Next Generation of Human Eye Simulator Prevents Eye Tracker Failures by Eliminating Unwanted Reflections with New IR Filter

Almalence introduces the next generation of its Human Eye Simulator, now making the simulator look exactly like a human eye by completely eliminating the unwanted pupil reflections in the IR specter.

A closer look at the evolution of how Almalence Human Eye Simulator looked like to the eye trackers in IR specter:

First generation:

In this IR capture from an eye-tracking camera, you can see the nicely defined glints. These are produced by eye-tracking system IR projectors and reflect off the synthetic cornea.

You can, however, also see some internal structure within the eye pupil. That structure is in fact the camera lens inside the eye simulator. Its presence in the captured image can distract the eye-tracking system. A real eye has no internal structures visible under IR illumination.

Second generation:

In the next generation of the Simulator, Almalence took care of the above issue by adding a conventional IR-cut filter.

Such filters are commonly sandwiched between the lens and the image sensor in digital cameras to prevent IR illumination to which the digital sensors are sensitive. The IR component of the light presents under some lighting conditions, and if not filtered out results in incorrect colors in the captured image.

Adding the IR filter to the Simulator worked very well for concealing the internal lens structure behind the pupil. Another issue remained though: under specific relative orientations of the simulated eye to the eye-tracking system, the surface of the filter was now producing a reflected image of the eye-tracking system itself.

In the image above, captured by an eye-tracker camera, you can see a reflection of that camera and its lens as well as the white background behind it.

Third generation:

In the third generation of the Simulator we implemented a custom-designed, non-flat, non-reflecting IR filter, achieving two major improvements over the previous design:

  1. No unwanted reflections inside the pupil, regardless of the simulator orientation.
  2. The non-flat surface has improved the overall MTF of the system and eliminated the unwanted reflections of the light from the IR LEDs that appear at some specific orientations and would blind the eye-tracking system.

With the design improvements made in the third generation Eye Simulator, Almalence achieved its robust operation and eliminated eye-tracking failures across all possible eye orientations and gaze angles, making the Simulator the ultimate solution for image capturing, optical profiling, and quality measurement of VR/AR head-mounted displays equipped with eye-tracking.

Near-eye Display Optic Deficiencies and Ways to Overcome Them

Achieving high picture quality, optical fidelity, and natural visual experience is a challenge in near-eye display design.


  • Why the conventional approaches do not work for near-eye display optical design;
  • What specific methods exist, and why they are still fundamentally limited;
  • How the computational optical correction techniques allow overcoming those limits.

Read a comprehensive article by Almalence CTO Dmitry Shmunk, originally presented at SPIE AR/VR/MR 2021 conference:

Almalence Digital Lens to harness the full potential of Varjo’s human-eye resolution head-mounted display

From its beginning Varjo positioned itself as the leader of VR head-mounted displays megapixel race. Their “human-eye resolution” VR-1 truly shows more detail than any other existing HMD.

However, just offering a high pixel count does not mean the user will be able to see a crisp and clean picture through the HMD optics, and in fact, it is the optics which present a display quality bottleneck. In a head-mounted display there are severe design constraints especially in making the optics light weight and fit in a tight space. Those constraints lead to a compromised optical performance, resulting in color fringing and blur. Moreover, any movement of the eye pupil, which itself constitutes a lens element, makes the entire optical system quite different from the original optical design, so the blur and color fringing get even stronger as the eye looks off the optical axis.

Almalence Digital Lens is a computational lens aberrations correction solution which overcomes these limitations by compensating the aberrations of an HMD optics. It does the job of a corrective lens element which dynamically adjusts its properties depending on the eye pupil position. We were eager to check how that technology can improve picture clarity of the highest resolution HMD.

Note 1: This testing was performed by Almalence independently from Varjo. The Digital Lens test was implemented as a Unity application using public API.

Note 2: This is the very first testing, definitely showing sub-optimal results. We see a clear way to further improve the image clarity with the given headset.

We used a construction drawing as a test picture as it clearly demonstrates how the insufficient apparent resolution and clarity limit the VR usability.

The test picture

To take the images within the HMD, we used our camera system with our eye imitator, allowing to capture what a human eye would see.

In the first example the eye looks about 10 degrees off the center. The left part of the gaze area falls onto the high resolution “focus display”, the right part falls onto the lower resolution “context display”

Move the slider left/right to see the difference. Left: Varjo VR-1 as is; Right: VR-1 with Digital Lens. Despite the high display pixel count, the picture does not look very clear. One can even start feeling sick when trying to read the numbers. The very same display with the Digital Lens delivers much clearer and readable picture.

In the next example the eye looks straight at the center, along the optical axis – the ideal case in which the HMD delivers its highest possible picture quality. The gaze area is completely over the focus display. Even in that case the Digital Lens shows a noticeable improvement:

Left: Varjo VR-1 as is; Right: VR-1 with the Digital Lens. Same display, but more legible text and crisper lines.

The beauty of the Digital Lens solution is that it is a pure computational technique, adding no extra size, weight or mechanical complexity to the device.

As mentioned above, those are very first tests, more to follow. However the tests already prove that the Digital Lens is an indispensable technology for high-end VR headsets, allowing to harness the full potential of high display pixel count and density.