Next Generation of Human Eye Simulator Prevents Eye Tracker Failures by Eliminating Unwanted Reflections with New IR Filter

Almalence introduces the next generation of its Human Eye Simulator, now making the simulator look exactly like a human eye by completely eliminating the unwanted pupil reflections in the IR specter.

A closer look at the evolution of how Almalence Human Eye Simulator looked like to the eye trackers in IR specter:

First generation:

In this IR capture from an eye-tracking camera, you can see the nicely defined glints. These are produced by eye-tracking system IR projectors and reflect off the synthetic cornea.

You can, however, also see some internal structure within the eye pupil. That structure is in fact the camera lens inside the eye simulator. Its presence in the captured image can distract the eye-tracking system. A real eye has no internal structures visible under IR illumination.

Second generation:

In the next generation of the Simulator, Almalence took care of the above issue by adding a conventional IR-cut filter.

Such filters are commonly sandwiched between the lens and the image sensor in digital cameras to prevent IR illumination to which the digital sensors are sensitive. The IR component of the light presents under some lighting conditions, and if not filtered out results in incorrect colors in the captured image.

Adding the IR filter to the Simulator worked very well for concealing the internal lens structure behind the pupil. Another issue remained though: under specific relative orientations of the simulated eye to the eye-tracking system, the surface of the filter was now producing a reflected image of the eye-tracking system itself.

In the image above, captured by an eye-tracker camera, you can see a reflection of that camera and its lens as well as the white background behind it.

Third generation:

In the third generation of the Simulator we implemented a custom-designed, non-flat, non-reflecting IR filter, achieving two major improvements over the previous design:

  1. No unwanted reflections inside the pupil, regardless of the simulator orientation.
  2. The non-flat surface has improved the overall MTF of the system and eliminated the unwanted reflections of the light from the IR LEDs that appear at some specific orientations and would blind the eye-tracking system.

With the design improvements made in the third generation Eye Simulator, Almalence achieved its robust operation and eliminated eye-tracking failures across all possible eye orientations and gaze angles, making the Simulator the ultimate solution for image capturing, optical profiling, and quality measurement of VR/AR head-mounted displays equipped with eye-tracking.

Near-eye Display Optic Deficiencies and Ways to Overcome Them

Achieving high picture quality, optical fidelity, and natural visual experience is a challenge in near-eye display design.


  • Why the conventional approaches do not work for near-eye display optical design;
  • What specific methods exist, and why they are still fundamentally limited;
  • How the computational optical correction techniques allow overcoming those limits.

Read a comprehensive article by Almalence CTO Dmitry Shmunk, originally presented at SPIE AR/VR/MR 2021 conference:

An ideal imitation of the human eye enables the precise measurement of near-eye and head-mounted display quality

The all-new 2021 version of the Almalence Human Eye Simulator. Optically clear. Eye Tracking ready.

To assess the quality of head-mounted displays, it is necessary to capture images which exactly match with what a human eye would perceive. Indeed, a capturing device has to be capable of accurately replicating the human eye’s optical properties. If they are not, then this could lead to some drastic irregularities – a mismatch of entrance pupil diameter, for instance, would lead to quite different blurs and aberrations, or even sometimes visible Fresnel rings, which are not apparent to the human eye. Once you do have a capturing device in place that can match the optical properties of the human eye, however, then now comes the real challenge: the device has to be recognized as an “eye” by eye trackers – otherwise, there will simply be no chance of capturing a correct picture, as a wrong picture would be displayed in the first place, in case the HMD uses eye position-dependent rendering techniques like foveated rendering or dynamic aberrations correction – which have recently been becoming standard for high-quality near-eye displays.

Almalence, a pioneer in designing the eye-imitating cameras, has now begun to roll out an all-new and updated version of its powerful eye simulator, better than ever and ideally suited for near-eye display picture capturing and quality measurement tasks. It features made-to-order, optically clear eye corneas, flawlessly creating a perfect match to the form of a real, human eye that is indistinguishable for eye trackers – unlike other, off-the-shelf parts and solutions, which commonly result in deviations from the proper shape. A clear aperture for up to a 120° FOV enables the seamless capture of up to the entire field of view in one shot, without ever compromising the contrast and MTF of the true visible picture.

The ideal profile of both visible and IR light absorption and reflection is painstakingly implemented, in order to make the simulator’s iris look exactly like a natural iris to an eye tracker. An additional IR-cut filter also prevents unwanted reflections from the camera lens, which may spoof eye tracker readings.

Auto-focus capability, to avoid having to manually adjust the focal point when moving the “eye” inside head-mounted displays that exhibit a significant field curvature.

The platform encapsulates multiple capturing camera designs, including a 100° field of view camera which enables the user to capture the entire visible FOV in one shot. This feature is also quite useful for geometry distortion measurements. Specially designed narrow 78- and 34-degree FOV cameras are also included, engineered for high-precision optical measurements, including apparent resolution, chromatic aberrations, and more.

A monochromatic camera can also optionally be used with the eye simulator, in order to resolve ambiguity in color channel mixing between the HMD display and CFA filters inside the camera.

Almalence has also developed a powerful software for the processing and transforming of captured images, so that they can readily be used for correct measurements of geometry, MTF, channel crossing, and other quality characteristics, with industry-standard tools such as ImaTest. Together with a 6-DOF robo-arm and its controlling software, all of the above-mentioned features seamlessly combine to present a complete, easy-to-implement tool for head-mounted displays, picture quality assessment, and the profiling of geometry and aberrations correction.

Almalence Digital Lens to harness the full potential of Varjo’s human-eye resolution head-mounted display

From its beginning Varjo positioned itself as the leader of VR head-mounted displays megapixel race. Their “human-eye resolution” VR-1 truly shows more detail than any other existing HMD.

However, just offering a high pixel count does not mean the user will be able to see a crisp and clean picture through the HMD optics, and in fact, it is the optics which present a display quality bottleneck. In a head-mounted display there are severe design constraints especially in making the optics light weight and fit in a tight space. Those constraints lead to a compromised optical performance, resulting in color fringing and blur. Moreover, any movement of the eye pupil, which itself constitutes a lens element, makes the entire optical system quite different from the original optical design, so the blur and color fringing get even stronger as the eye looks off the optical axis.

Almalence Digital Lens is a computational lens aberrations correction solution which overcomes these limitations by compensating the aberrations of an HMD optics. It does the job of a corrective lens element which dynamically adjusts its properties depending on the eye pupil position. We were eager to check how that technology can improve picture clarity of the highest resolution HMD.

Note 1: This testing was performed by Almalence independently from Varjo. The Digital Lens test was implemented as a Unity application using public API.

Note 2: This is the very first testing, definitely showing sub-optimal results. We see a clear way to further improve the image clarity with the given headset.

We used a construction drawing as a test picture as it clearly demonstrates how the insufficient apparent resolution and clarity limit the VR usability.

The test picture

To take the images within the HMD, we used our camera system with our eye imitator, allowing to capture what a human eye would see.

In the first example the eye looks about 10 degrees off the center. The left part of the gaze area falls onto the high resolution “focus display”, the right part falls onto the lower resolution “context display”

Move the slider left/right to see the difference. Left: Varjo VR-1 as is; Right: VR-1 with Digital Lens. Despite the high display pixel count, the picture does not look very clear. One can even start feeling sick when trying to read the numbers. The very same display with the Digital Lens delivers much clearer and readable picture.

In the next example the eye looks straight at the center, along the optical axis – the ideal case in which the HMD delivers its highest possible picture quality. The gaze area is completely over the focus display. Even in that case the Digital Lens shows a noticeable improvement:

Left: Varjo VR-1 as is; Right: VR-1 with the Digital Lens. Same display, but more legible text and crisper lines.

The beauty of the Digital Lens solution is that it is a pure computational technique, adding no extra size, weight or mechanical complexity to the device.

As mentioned above, those are very first tests, more to follow. However the tests already prove that the Digital Lens is an indispensable technology for high-end VR headsets, allowing to harness the full potential of high display pixel count and density.

Accurate Eye Imitation for VR HMD Testing

When it comes to VR/AR HMD objective testing, you need an “eye” which is much more than simply a digital camera. Besides having the entrance pupil, focal length and aperture similar to those of a human eye to see like a human eye, the imitation must be properly perceived by the eye tracking modules.

Meet the First in the World accurate eye imitation created by Almalence.

Not only sees like an eye, but also looks like an eye

Using a special compound developed at Almalence lab, we managed to create an imitation of the iris that looks correctly in both visible and infrared light, which makes the eye imitation correctly detected by eye tracking devices. To make the imitation totally indistinguishable from an eye of a human being, the imitation is made to give proper reflections and glint locations.

Whist having all the above properties, the imitation has a cover glass made of an optical-quality transparent material, which does not distort the light passing to the camera. The camera, in its turn, has the entrance pupil properly positioned within the “eye” using special micro-mount.

With the above features together, we have achieved a perfect “two-way immersion” — the eye imitation not only sees exactly what a human eye would see, it also looks exactly as a human eye to the eye tracker.

The eye imitation will be used for better optical profiling of VR HMDs to achieve the highest possible quality with Almalence Digital Lens technology and for accurate objective testing of VR/AR HMD picture quality.

This eye does not lie

Almalence Digital Lens technology enables high resolution wide FoV VR HMDs

Digital Lens addresses the smear and aberrations inherent to thin and lightweight VR HMD optics.

First objective quality measurements performed with a demo based on HTC Vive showed up to 2.7 times effective resolution improvement and suppression of chromatic aberrations even at the edges of field of view.

The technology opens the door for high resolution displays, solving the problem of optical performance which does not allow to harness the full advantage of extra display resolution. It also enables wide field of view HMDs where any acceptable picture quality at wide angles cannot be achieved with an optical design alone.
Aberration and MTF charts from the report on quality measurement, comparing HTC Vive built-in lens correction to Almalence Digital Lens:

MTF50, HTC Vive with/without Almalence DLVR

MTF50, HTC Vive with/without Almalence DLVR

Almalence DLVR removes chromatic aberrations in HTC Vive even at the edges of field of view

Almalence DLVR removes chromatic aberrations in HTC Vive even at the edges of field of view

HTC Vive with/without Almalence DLVR, slanted edge chart for Imatest measurements

HTC Vive with/without Almalence DLVR, slanted edge chart for Imatest measurements

Meet us at Mobile World Congress 2018

This year we will bring to MWC:

  • A live demo of our breakthrough VR quality improvement technology. An enabler for next generation high resolution HMDs, Almalence DLVR technology solves the problem of thin and lightweight optics quality without adding extra size or weight to VR/AR HMDs
  • Latest generation of mobile image and video improvement solutions. High resolution, lossless zoom, better low light performance and higher dynamic range plus image stabilization altogether in a single solution, available for both still image capturing and video/preview!
  • Next generation image and video improvement technologies to be brought to the market in 2018

Demo by invitation only. Please contact us to schedule a meeting.